The NTM has an extensive collection of receiving, amplifying, transmitting and special tubes from the first types to the latest types that is one of the largest and most complete collections ever. The founder of the collection is Miroslav Prokop, a curator of Technical Museum of the Czech Kingdom’s sources of light collection and an important designer of the Inwald glassworks, which still produces lighting fixtures. The collection contains development samples of the first Czechoslovak factory for electron tubes, which became indispensable for the creation of modern civilization, the famous Elektra from the Hloubětín neighbourhood of Prague, where under the leadership of a native from Sázava, the inventor Jan Bísk, vacuum products of world-class parameters were created under the "Mars" brand in the years between 1923 and 1932. This collection also includes 3 special diodes made by Augusta Žáček, who discovered the so-called electronic magnetron oscillations on them in 1924. The most important item in the collection is Lieben's triode, "the first usable and mass-produced vacuum tube in the world", which its creator, Robert von Lieben, used in 1910 in an amplifier developed in Hodolany near Olomouc.
The collections contain the first Czechoslovak point-contact transistors from the laboratories of the A. S. Popov Research Institute, the first monolithic integrated circuit and the oldest samples of LED diodes and seven-segment LED displays.